The Raster model is a disaggregate model of environmental impacts of urban land use and transport. It was developed in the EU project PROPOLIS (Planning and Research of Policies for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability). Combined with a land-use transport model as the IRPUD model, the Raster model calculates for a given set of land use and traffic flow data energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and loss of open space and spatially disaggregate indicators for air quality and noise intrusion, taking account of the disaggregate distribution of residential population.
The Raster model is described in:
Spiekermann, K. (2003): The PROPOLIS Raster Module. Deliverable D4 of PROPOLIS. Dortmund: Spiekermann & Wegener Urban and Regional Research.
Applications of the Raster model are described in:
Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (2008): Environmental feedback in urban models. International Journal of Sustainable Transport 2, 41-57.
Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (2007): The PROPOLIS model for assessing urban sustainability. In: Deakin, M., Mitchell, G., Nijkamp, P., Vreeker, R. (Hg.): Sustainable Urban Development. Volume 2. The Environmental Assessment Methods. London, New York: Routledge, 306-326.
Lautso, K., Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M., Sheppard, I., Steadman, P., Martino, A., Domingo, R., Gayda, S. (2004): PROPOLIS: Planning and Research of Policies for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability. PROPOLIS Final Report. Helsinki: LT Consultants.
Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (2004): Evaluating urban sustainability using land-use transport interaction models. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research 4 (3), 251-272.
Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (2003): Modelling urban sustainability. In: International Journal of Urban Sciences 7(1), 47-64.
Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (1999): Disaggregate environmental modules for modelling sustainable urban development. In: Rizzi, P. (Hg.): Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management on the Edge of the Millennium. Mailand, F. Angeli.